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Volume 90, Number 3 (Summer 2016)

An Antipodean Apple Narrative: How Place and Time Evolved for the Market JOHANNA CHRISTENSEN, DON GARDEN, AND RUTH BEILIN

In order to understand the social and ecological history of apple growing, we undertook historical research, drawing upon in-depth interviews with apple growers to explore local and historic knowledge as well as to obtain an understanding of contemporary growing practices and decision-making among orchardists. The research shows that all apple orchard businesses are still family owned, and most of them have a history going back at least three generations, but the way orchards are run is increasingly focused on industrial-scale efficiency and productivity. Short-term economic decisions often take priority over longer-term sustainable choices. Diversity on all levels is decreasing. There are fewer growers and a reduced number of retail outlets to supply. In turn, growers become more and more specialized by narrowing the range of varieties. Interviews have also shown that growers who have chosen to diversify into other niche markets are benefiting from that decision and are also contributing to their region’s economic, environmental, and sociocultural wellbeing.

Home Cures for Ailing Horses: A Case Study of Nineteenth-Century Vernacular Veterinary Medicine in Tennessee ANTHONY P. CAVENDER AND DONALD B. BALL

Vernacular human medicine, otherwise known as folk or popular medicine, has received considerable attention from scholars in the United States, but little research has been done on how lay people dealt with livestock ailments prior to the professionalization of veterinary medicine. Using Tennessee in the nineteenth century as a case study, this paper examines the corpus of popular knowledge on the identification and treatment of horse ailments available to lay people in printed sources, focusing primarily on newspapers and to a lesser extent on patent medicine brochures and horse care handbooks. Information on horse medicine found in the newspapers was often in the form of a letter to the editor or as an excerpt from another periodical. Collectively, newspapers served as a national clearinghouse for popular veterinary knowledge. An examination of the horse remedies reported in the newspapers and other printed materials shows a close correspondence between the materia medica and therapeutic modalities used for treating humans with those used for treating horses. The paper also considers folk remedies for horse ailments and folk healers known as “horse doctors,” but the discussion is limited due to paucity of information available in the historical record.


A New Deal Personified: A. J. Hamman and the Cooperative Extension Service in Colorado DOUGLAS SHEFLIN

This article highlights Colorado Cooperative Extension Service (CCES) employee A. J. Hamman to demonstrate how Extension employees began acting as intermediaries between farmers and the federal government in the face of the Great Depression and Dust Bowl. The dual crises forced both farmers and the state to adapt, and the Extension Service facilitated a variety of reforms. For example, Hamman and his colleagues executed federal policy by working with farmers, combining local initiative and federal largesse to pro- mote production controls as well as to establish a wide-ranging conservation program that continued well beyond the 1930s. This cooperation between Colorado farmers and Washington, DC, policymakers gained strength during the war years when extension provided farmers a diverse and sizable army of seasonal workers to support wartime production. Ultimately, the CCES bolstered Colorado farmers during some of their worst years and in the process profoundly altered the agricultural economy and landscape of south- eastern Colorado.

“Land Free from Tradition and History”: Dutch Social Democrats and the New Rural Order, 1918-1940 LIESBETH VAN DE GRIFT

Dutch social democrats were very involved in the debate over the colonization of land reclaimed from the Zuiderzee in the interwar years, despite the fact that socialist parties throughout Europe tended to focus their attention on urban rather than rural areas and the voters that lived there. This article argues that the involvement of the Dutch left arose out of internal tensions over the party’s position vis-à-vis the nation’s rural population. Social democrats’ political visions were hard to sell in the countryside, and the party lacked the institutional power to implement them. It was this context that made the reclamation project so vital an opportunity to seize on: a “clean slate” for social democrats to introduce their own agricultural reforms and prove their viability.

Book Reviews

North America

Wahlstrom, The Southern Exodus to Mexico: Migration across the Borderlands after the American Civil War, by Armando Alonzo

Nickols and Kay, eds., Remaking Home Economics: Resourcefulness and Innovation in Changing Times, by Nancy K. Berlage

Skillen, Federal Ecosystem Management: Its Rise, Fall, and Afterlife, by Lincoln Bramwell

Downs and Masur, eds., The World the Civil War Made, by Carole Emberton

O'Brien, Landscapes of Exclusion: State Parks and Jim Crow in the American South, by Colin Fisher

Milne, Natchez Country: Indians, Colonists, and the Landscapes of Race in French Louisiana ,by Joshua S. Haynes

Flores, Grounds for Dreaming: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the California Farmworker Movement by Linda Heidenreich

Carter et al., Forestry in the US South: A History by Owen James Hyman

Edgington, Range Wars: The Environmental Contest for White Sands Missile Range, by David W. Mills

Ferleger and Metz, Cultivating Success in the South: Farm Households in the Postbellum Era ,by Adrienne Petty

Mooney, Race Horse Men: How Slavery and Freedom Were Made at the Racetrack ,by James Hill Welborn III

O’Sullivan, American Organic: A Cultural History of Farming, Gardening, Shopping and Eating, by Brian K. Obach

Merleaux, Sugar and Civilization: American Empire and the Cultural Politics of Sweetness, by David Singerman

Brock, Money Trees: The Douglas Fir and American Forestry, 1900–1944 by James R. Skillen

Jennings, The Cowboy Legend: Owen Wister's Virginian and the Canadian-American Frontier, by Richard W. Slatta

Fischer, Cattle Colonialism: An Environmental History of the Conquest of California and Hawai‘i, by John Thistle

Danbom, ed., Bridging the Distance: Common Issues of the Rural West by Wilson J. Warren

Brock and Vivian, eds., Leisure, Plantations, and the Making of a New South: The Sporting Plantations of the South Carolina Lowcountry and Red Hills Region, 1900–1940, by Michael Winslow

Latin America

Suárez Findlay, We Are Left Without A Father Here: Masculinity, Domesticity, and Migration in Postwar Puerto Rico, , by Maura I. Toro-Morn


Morris, Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels: How Human Values Evolve, by Brian C. Black

Melillo, TStrangers on Familiar Soil: Rediscovering the Chile-California Connection, by Lori A. Flores

Nance, ed., The Historical Animal, by Brett Mizelle