Cage Free Since 1919

Robert Hutchings Profile

Robert Hutchings

Robert Hutchings

Graduate Student, Carnegie Mellon University

Current Project

My dissertation is tracing the transition in the Florida orange industry from an orientation towards the fresh fruit market to one centered around frozen concentrated orange juice. FCOJ, as it is mostly commonly referred to as in the industry, was first developed in 1945 and became commercially available on a significant scale in 1948. From the beginning it was enormously popular with consumers, and over the course of two decades became less and less a part of the Florida orange industry and more and more the Florida orange industry. This relatively abrupt shift in emphasis after 80-plus years of near-exclusive focus on the fresh fruit market completely reconfigured all phases of the industry. From agricultural practices and perceptions of the environment to labor and laborers, from cooperative activity and advertising campaigns to packing and shipping, and from family-owned and -operated groves to agribusiness and absentee owners, the Florida orange industry in 1965 looked almost nothing like it had in 1945. 

Best Place for an Agricultural History Conference

Anywhere there are oranges!


Sherlock Holmes, classic literature, playing bridge, old movies, and seeing something of the world.

Favorite Historical Figure

John Adams

Favorite Agricultural/Rural Movie

The Defiant Ones, with Tony Curtis and Sidney Poitier. Or, perhaps In the Heat of the Night, with Poitier and Rod Steiger.

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